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Design Guide for Rural Northern Ireland
Appendix 3: Tree Species (Extract from Trees on the Farm)

Native Trees

Species Favoured site Attributes Hints on growing
Alnus glutinosa
Streamside, damp woods, waterlogged sites Fast growing. Flourishes in the wettest of places where little else grows, also on clay and fill Will not flourish in stagnant water. Easily established and copies well
Fraxinus excelsior
Open woodland and hedgerows Tolerant of cold and exposed sites, including windswept costal areas Dislikes waterlogged sites. Best transplanted young
Betula pubescens
Pioneer species: open sites and woodland Hardy and fast-growing. Shelters slower-growing species wide range of  tolerance to exposure, damp ground and poor soils. Intolerant of shade, grows best free of rank grass
Prunus spinosa
Hedgerows and rough stony land Dense thicket form makes ideal stock-proof hedge. Tolerates exposed and windswept coastal locations. Provides protection for saplings from grazing Plant as whips or transplant suckers
(wild) Prunus avium
Woods and hedgerows Attractive blossom, foliage and fruit Establishes easily
Crab Apple
Malus pumila
Hedgerows Attractive hedgerow free in form, fruit and flower Requires open situation, easily established
Ulmus glabra
Hedgerows and woodland Important hedgerow tree. Fast-growing and tolerant of exposed locations Cannot stand dry sites. Some species prone to Dutch Elm Disease
Crataegus monogyna
Hedgerows and scrub Prime hedgerow tree. Provides ideal protection for saplings Dislikes acid soils and wet sites
Corylus avellana
Woodland under-story, and hillsides Excellent as low growth in woodland Coppices easily and prevents erosion of thin hillside soils. Intolerant of acid soils. Establish by avoiding competition from grass
Ilex aquifolium
Woodland Evergreen. Hardy, tolerant of exposure, attractive foliage and berries. Grows well in shade. Intolerant of wet sites. Difficult to establish
Quercus petraea & Q robur
Individual trees, small  groups, woodland Tolerates shallow rocky soils and can grow well on clay. Very wind-firm Grows best when `nursed' between fast-growing species
Sorbus aucuparia
Open woodland, hillsides Hardy, tolerant of exposure. Will grow on thin soils. Attractive flowers and berries Prefers dry sites, transplants well
Whitebeam Sorbus aria Woodland, rocky ground Attractive form,foliage, fruit and flowers. Tolerant of coastal exposure As Rowan but also tolerates damper sites
Salix (many varities)
Stream sides, damp areas plantations Rapid growth, attractive form in larger species. Good shelterbelt and screen trees. Coppice readily Cannot survive permanent water logging. Grow from cuttings

Non-native Broadleaves

Species Favoured site Attributes Hints on growing
Fagus sylvatica
Single trees, shelterbelts woodland and hedges Saplings will grow in shade. Salt tolerant. Fine autumn colour. Best on well-drained sites. Grows best with nurse species
Tilia vulgaris
Single trees, woodland Attractive woodland and landscape tree Needs shelter when young
Populus (many varieties)
Shelterbelts, plantations, stream sides Fast growth enables rapid establishment for shelterbelts or timber. White Popular salt resistant Do not plant near to buildings or drains. Grow from cuttings.
Horse Chestnut
Aesculus hippocastanum
Woodland. single trees Ornamental tree with attractive flowers and autumn colour. Grows well on clay and exposed sites
Sweet Chestnut
Castanea sativa
Woodland, plantations for coppicing Rapid growth. Coppices freely in sheltered locations Liable to suffer from cold and exposure.
Acer pseudoplatanus
Hedgerows, woodland Hardy, invasive species, tolerant of exposed coastal conditions. Shelterbelt tree around upland farms Worth using in difficult places. Grows easily.


Species Favoured Site Attributes Hints on growing
Scots Pine
Pinus sylvestris
Single trees or groups on dry acid soils and rocky ground Attractive foliage and bark. Previously native. Grows easily. Dislikes lime or wet peat.
Black Pine
Pinus nigra
Single trees or groups on light soils, sand or limestone. Good shelterbelt tree on lime rich soils and for stabilising sand dunes. Salt tolerant. Not wind-firm on clay
Lodgepole & Shore Pines
Pinus contorta
Grow on windswept moors and damp soils Rapid early growth. Wide range of soil tolerance. Good for shelterbelts. Many varieties - choice of short heavy crown or tall light crown.
Sitka Spruce
Picea sitchensis
Shelterbelts and plantations in damp situations Rapid growth, exposure tolerant. Good for shelter in acid uplands Prefers grassy to heathery sites.Needs high rainfall, prefers western counties
Norway Spruce Picea abies Shelterbelts and plantations on wet sites, preferably grassy Valuable 'nurse' tree for young hardwoods. Rapid growth and dense foliage makes good shelter Dislikes dry sites
Larix (several)
Single trees or plantations on well drained soils. Deciduous conifer. Deep rooting, withstands exposure, good nurse tree for hardwoods Particularly suitable for bracken-covered soils
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