A17 EIA is more likely to be required if the site area of the new development is more than 20 hectares. In determining whether significant effects are likely, particular consideration should be given to the potential increase in traffic, emissions and noise.
Urban development projects (including the construction of shopping centres & car parks)
A18 In addition to the physical scale of such developments, particular consideration should be given to the potential increase in traffic, emissions and noise. EIA is unlikely to be required for the redevelopment of land unless the new development is on a significantly greater scale than the previous use, or the types of impact are of a markedly different nature or there is a high level of contamination.
A19 Developments proposed for sites which have not previously been intensively developed are more likely to require EIA if:
lntermodal transhipment facilities and intermodal terminals
A20 In addition to the physical scale of the development, particular impacts for consideration are increased traffic, noise, emissions to air and water. Developments of more than 5 hectares are more likely to require EIA.
Construction of roads, railways (including elevated and underground) and tramways
A21 For linear transport schemes, the likelihood of significant effects will generally depend on the estimated emissions, traffic, noise and vibration and degree of visual intrusion and impact on the surrounding ecology. EIA is more likely to be required for new development over 2 km in length.
Construction of inland waterways and canalisation
A22 The likelihood of significant impacts is likely to depend primarily on the potential wider impacts on the surrounding hydrology and ecology. EIA is more likely to be required for development of over 2 km of canal.
Flood relief works
A23 The impact of flood relief works is especially dependent upon the nature of the location and the potential effects on the surrounding ecology and hydrology. Schemes for which the area of the works would exceed 5 hectares or more than 2 km long would normally require EIA.
Construction of airfields
A24 The main impacts to be considered in judging significance are noise, traffic generation and emissions. New permanent airfields will normally require EIA, as will major works (such as new runways or terminals with a site area of more than 10 hectares) at existing airports. Smaller scale development at existing airports is unlikely to require EIA unless it would lead to significant increases in air or road traffic.
Construction of harbours and port installations, including fishing harbours
A25 Primary impacts for consideration are those on hydrology, ecology, noise and increased traffic. EIA is more likely to be required if the development is on a major scale (e.g. would cover a site of more than10 hectares). Smaller developments may also have significant effects where they include a quay or pier which would extend beyond the high water mark or would affect wider coastal processes.
Dams and other installations designed to hold water or store it on a long-term basis
A26. In considering such developments, particular regard should be had to the potential wider impacts to the hydrology and ecology, as well as to the physical scale of the development. EIA is likely to be required for any major new dam (e.g. where the construction site exceeds 20 hectares).
Installation of oil pipelines, gas pipelines and long-distance aqueducts (including water and sewerage pipelines)
A27 For underground pipelines, the major impact to be considered will generally be the disruption to the surrounding ecosystems during construction, while for overground pipelines visual impact will be a key consideration. EIA is more likely to be required for any pipeline over 5 km long. EIA is unlikely to be required forpipelines laid underneath a road, or for those installed entirely by means of tunnelling.
Coastal work to combat erosion and maritime works capable of altering the coast
A28 The impact of such works will depend largely on the nature of the particular site and the likely wider impacts on natural coastal processes outside of the site. EIA will be more likely where the area of the works would exceed 1 hectare .
Groundwater abstraction and artificial groundwater recharge schemes; works for the transfer of water resources between river basins
A29 Impacts likely to be significant are on hydrology and ecology. Developments of this sort can have significant effects on environments some kilometers distant. This is particularly important for wetland and other sites where the habitat and species are particularly dependent on an aquatic environment. EIA is likely to be required for developments where the area of the works exceed 1 hectare.
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