Draft PPS18: Renewable Energy
Annex 1 Energy from Waste (Biological Processes) Technology: Direct-End Use
C36. The direct use of LFG as a replacement fuel for coal, oil or natural gas is well established. The gas is pumped direct to a nearby end user, mainly to provide heat in industrial processes such as:
- firing and drying – as in brick and cement manufacture, stove drying and asphalt coating; and
- boiler firing – to raise steam and heat water for the drying and bleaching of textiles and paper, the heating of commercial greenhouses, and for food processing.
C37. Direct end-use systems usually comprise a pressure booster station, a pumping main and the utilisation equipment. The booster station will normally be integrated with the extraction plant. Pumping mains will be placed underground, and tend not to exceed 5 km in length because of the high cost of installation. The utilisation equipment varies greatly depending on the process, and because it will usually be integrated with the process, the impact in relation to planning requirements will be lessened.