PPS 11: Planning and Waste Management
Best Practicable Environmental option (BPEO) - summarised by the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution as “the outcome of a systematic consultative and decision making procedure which emphasises the protection and conservation of the environment across land, air and water. The BPEO procedure establishes, for a given set of objectives, the option that provides the most benefits or least damage to the environment, as a whole, at acceptable cost, in the long term as well as the short term.”
Biodegradable Municipal Waste (BMW) – the portion of the municipal waste stream [see definition of municipal] that is capable of undergoing anaerobic or aerobic decomposition, such as food and garden waste, and paper and paperboard.
Civic Amenity Site – site for the collection of recyclable materials and bulky household waste.
Commercial Waste – waste from premises used for the purpose of trade or business, sport, recreation or entertainment.
Compost – organic matter decomposed aerobically or anaerobically and used as a fertiliser or soil conditioner.
Construction/Demolition Waste – masonry and rubble wastes arising from the demolition or construction of buildings or other civil engineering structures.
Contaminated Land – land which has been subject to the addition of a material or materials to such a degree as to render it unfit for its intended purpose.
Controlled Waste – refers to household/municipal, industrial and commercial waste.
Environmental Impact – the total effect of any operation on the surrounding environment.
Essential Interim Landfill Capacity – the Waste Management Strategy provides for the development of additional landfill capacity to meet essential capacity needs identified by District Councils prior to the establishment of an integrated network of waste management facilities.
Groundwater – water held in water-bearing rocks.
Hazardous Waste – a waste that, by virtue of its composition, carries the risk of death, injury or impairment of health, to humans or animals, the pollution of waters, or could have an unacceptable environmental impact if improperly handled, treated or disposed of. The term should not be used for waste that merely contains a hazardous material or materials. It should be used only to describe wastes that contain sufficient of these materials to render the waste as a whole hazardous within the definition given above.
Household Waste – waste from a domestic property, caravan, residential home or from premises forming part of a university or school or other educational establishment; premises forming part of a hospital or nursing home.
Hydrogeology – the study of water in rocks.
Incineration – the burning of waste at high temperatures. This results in a reduction in bulk and may involve energy reclamation.
Industrial Waste – wastes from any factory, transportation apparatus, from scientific research, dredging, sewage and scrap metal.
Inert Waste – waste material that does not undergo any significant physical, chemical or biological transformations when deposited in landfill. Inert waste will not dissolve, burn or otherwise physically or chemically react, biodegrade or adversely affect other matter with which it comes into contact in a way likely to give rise to environmental pollution or harm human health. The total leachability and pollutant content of the waste and the leachate must be insignificant, and in particular not endanger the quality of surface water and/or groundwater.
IPPC – new Regulations are proposed to transpose the requirements of EC Directive 96/61 on Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC). The Regulations are designed to protect the environment through the prevention of or reduction in pollution of air, water and land caused by emissions from industrial installations. Under the Directive Specified Waste Management Activities which includes most landfill sites and certain types of hazardous waste treatment will require permits.
Landfill Gas – a gas produced by the decomposition of biodegradable waste. It consists primarily of a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide.
Land Improvement - the deposition of inert waste on land for the purposes of:
- improving agricultural land, for example where steep gradients are
- reduced and the land re-graded with an adequate surface layer of topsoil; or
- land reclamation for necessary development, or
- preparing other land for necessary development, or
- landscaping, screening or re-grading other land.
Landfill Site – the controlled deposit of waste to land generally involving the infilling of voids following mineral extraction.
Landraising – involves the deposit of waste above ground, e.g. in naturally occurring depressions or as part of reclamation schemes.
Landspreading – the application of waste or sludges to the land and thereby facilitating their degradation and incorporation into the top layer of soil. Fertiliser is usually added to assist aerobic breakdown.
Leachate – liquid that seeps through a landfill site and by so doing extracts substances from the deposited waste.
Municipal Waste - household waste and any other waste under the control of District Councils or their agents acting on their behalf.
Proximity Principle – highlights a need to treat and/or dispose of waste in reasonable proximity to the point at which it is generated.
Putrescible – liable to decompose or rot with an offensive smell.
Recovery – the reclamation, collection and separation of waste materials from the waste stream.
Recycling – the recovery and re-use of materials from the waste stream.
Re-use – the repeated utilisation of an item/material for its original (or other) purpose.
Self-sufficiency – is a central tenet of EC legislation which requires all member states to apply this principle in their waste management practices at national level and, as far as is practicable, also at regional and sub-regional levels.
Special Waste – waste which contains substances deemed to be dangerous to life as defined by the Special Waste Regulations (Northern Ireland) 1998.
Waste – the unwanted by-product of industrial, commercial and domestic activities or anything otherwise discarded.
Waste Disposal – the process of getting rid of unwanted, broken, worn out, contaminated or spoiled materials in an orderly, regulated fashion.
Waste Management Hierarchy – is at the centre of European waste management policy. The hierarchy indicates the relative priority of different methods of managing waste, and provides instruction to waste management policy and planning initiatives on how to progress towards sustainable waste management policies.
Waste Management Strategy – published on 20th March 2000, this document’s main purpose is to provide a framework for the development of regional waste management facilities in Northern Ireland.
Waste Management Plans (WMPs) – the principle mechanism for implementation of the Waste Management Strategy that requires District Councils to prepare WMPs in line with the timetable contained within the Strategy. Article 23 of the Waste & Contaminated Land Order 1997 imposed a duty on District Councils to prepare WMPs detailing what arrangements were appropriate for dealing with the recovery, treatment and disposal of controlled waste arising in their districts.
Waste Management Licence (WML) – a licence granted by the Environment & Heritage Service under the Waste & Contaminated Land Order (Northern Ireland) 1997. The WML will replace the current Waste Disposal Licence (WDL) granted by the relevant District Council under the Pollution Control and Local Government (Northern Ireland) Order 1978 when licensing powers transfer to EHS.