PPS 2: Planning and Nature Conservation
Annex 1: International Treaties, Conventions and Directives
The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat (Ramsar 2.2.1971, as amended by the Protocol of 3.12.1982 and the Conference of Parties on 28.5.1987):- Requires the conservation of wetlands; especially sites listed under the Convention. For the purposes of this Convention, wetlands are areas of marsh, fen, peatland or water, whether natural or artificial, permanent or temporary, with water that is static or flowing, fresh, brackish or salt, including areas of marine water, the depth of which at low tide does not exceed 6 metres.
The Bonn Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (June 1979):- Requires the protection of the endangered migratory species listed, and encourages separate international agreements covering particular species. An agreement covering the Conservation of Bats in Europe came into force in January 1994. It deals with the need to protect bats and their feeding and roosting areas.
The Bern Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (September 1979):- Carries obligations to conserve wild plants, birds and other animals, with particular emphasis on endangered and vulnerable species and their habitats. The provisions of the Convention underlie the EC Habitats Directive (see para 6 below) as well as the UK's wildlife legislation.
EC Council Directive on the Conservation of Wild Birds (79/409/EEC): (The Birds Directive):- Provides for the protection, management and control of all species of naturally occurring wild birds in the European territory of Member States. It requires Member States to take measures to preserve a sufficient diversity of habitats for all species of wild birds naturally occurring within their territories in order to maintain populations at ecologically and scientifically sound levels, and requires Member States to take special measures to conserve the habitat of certain particularly rare species and of migratory species.
EC Council Directive on the Assessment of the Effects of Certain Public and Private Projects on the Environment (85/337/EEC)(The Environmental Assessment Directive):-Requires environmental assessment to be carried out before a decision is taken on whether planning permission should be granted for certain types of project which are likely to have significant environmental effects.
EC Council Directive on the Conservation of Natural Habitats of Wild Fauna and Flora (92/43/EEC): (The Habitats Directive):- Requires Member States to take measures to maintain or restore natural habitats and Wild species at a favourable conservation status in the Community, giving effect to both site and species protection objectives.
UN Biodiversity Convention (June 1992):- Provides a framework for international action to protect species and habitats. The UK's overall goal under the Convention is to conserve and enhance biological diversity within the UK and to contribute to the conservation of global biodiversity through all appropriate mechanisms.