Stage 2: Influencing Travel to the Development: Incentives to individuals
Incentives to individuals can complement physical and organisational measures as part of a package of measures to influence travel patterns.
Appropriate incentives will vary and are likely to be most effective with a package of incentives to walk, cycle and use public transport combined with financial disincentives to car use and constraints on car parking.
Various types of financial incentives can be offered to those who walk and cycle, or agree not to take a car to work.. Examples are, company supported cycle purchase schemes or relocation packages which can favour employees who choose housing, which has easy non-car access to the site. Alternatively, local public transport operators may offer special benefits for new season tickets on local services.
Many organisations offer direct incentives to use public transport by providing loans or subsidising season tickets. Such tickets normally provide benefits to holders beyond the journey to work, with some bus operators offering transferable tickets for use on any service within the operating areas. Alternatively, companies might find it more effective to organise their own works buses directly, which can then be tailored to the needs of the individual organisation. Incentives to encourage more sustainable travel benefit from increasingly favourable taxation arrangements.
Company car policy has often encouraged individuals to drive to work or on work-based trips. The taxation arrangements for company cars has changed significantly so that it can be better for individuals to give up company cars and take other travel incentives instead. Company car policy can also be changed by:
- identifying those staff with most need of company car benefits;
- changing the nature of the car-use benefits, for example the travel mileage rates;
- replacing the benefits with other measures relating to other modes, such as cycle allowances; and
- encouraging the use of taxis as an alternative to car use.
For housing developments, discounted public transport tickets may be offered, and special introductory offers to new residents can be beneficial to operators. Negotiations with operators may also redefine ticket zone boundaries to benefit residents of the development.