Stage 2: Influencing Travel to the Development: Managing car use and parking
While the aim is to encourage non-car access to developments it is inevitable that vehicle use will be generated. For some developments traffic generation could be considerable. In such cases and as an integral part of the Transport Assessment a developer may be required to provide additional information in the form of traffic impact analysis. This analysis should be sufficient to enable the Planning Service and Roads Service to reach a view on the likely impact of the development on traffic flows locally. The Institution of Highways and Transportation publication Guidelines for Traffic Impact Assessment should be used by developers in the preparation of such analysis.
Following traffic impact analysis changes to the highway network may be required. Provision could include:
- Alterations to traffic light phasing
- Additional lane provision at junctions
- New light-controlled junctions
- New roundabouts
- New road access into the site
- Appropriate traffic calming
Such provision should only be considered after provision for non-car modes has been fully explored and integrated into the development proposal.
Vehicle access design must provide for the needs of large vehicles and abnormal loads that may be attracted to the development. In some circumstances turning circles and dedicated parking will be needed for HGVs.
Vehicular access and parking
Since all developments are likely to generate additional traffic (or lead to the diversion of existing traffic) the Transport Assessment must address their needs. Managing car access and parking will continue to be an important part of influencing travel choice. Measures should be introduced to minimise the need for parking, yet provide for the good design and location of parking and access arrangements.
Managing the number of parking spaces
Parking levels 15 in new developments need to be controlled in order to promote sustainable transport choices; the availability, type and cost of parking is important in determining travel choices. Furthermore controlling the level of parking will also reduce the land-take of the development, providing the potential for more concentrated development.
Parking arrangements adjacent to development should be addressed in the Transport Assessment. The developer should consider parking arrangements in the surrounding area and the area immediately adjacent to the site.
Location of parking and access routes
4.80 On-site parking should be designed so as not to obstruct pedestrian and cycle routes or access to public transport. Provision should be made for accessing the main entrance by foot, by cycle and by people with a mobility impairment. For example, parking for people with a mobility impairment should be as close to the main entrance as possible with the recommended number of places (see PPS 3: Access, Movement and Parking and Development Control Advice Note 11 (ft) – Access for All: Designing for an Accessible Environment).
15 Refer to Planning Policy Statement 3 for parking standards (DOE, 2005)