Stage 2: Influencing Travel to the Development: Promoting access on bicycle
Access to a development by cycle will depend on the local topography, the nature of the development, and the culture of cycling. The potential of cycling is probably greatest for journeys to work and to school, but is also considerable for other activities including sports and leisure, and for local journeys for personal business such as shopping and visiting friends.
Design for cycling
Detailed advice on the design of cycle facilities is provided in Cycle-Friendly Infrastructure 12, Cycling by Design 13 and National Cycle Network – Guidelines and Practical Details: Issue 2 14.
In order to encourage cycling the following are needed:
- safe cycling routes to the site (both well designed, safe and secure on-road routes as well as off-road routes where appropriate or feasible);
- secure cycle parking and other facilities on the site (e.g. showers/lockers for employees);
The appropriate design for cycling will depend on the anticipated number of cyclists, the speed and volume of motor vehicles, the functions of the route and the physical opportunities present. It should also take account of the number of lorries, sight distances, on-street parking, the number and type of junctions and accesses to properties. It is important to consider which routes cyclists will use and whether they can share carriageways safely with other people or vehicles.
Junctions can be particularly hazardous for cyclists, so it is important they are well designed. Junction designs that are cycle-friendly are also likely to be pedestrian-friendly.
- Layouts that place cyclists outside the driver's normal field of view are likely to be hazardous, while those placing cyclists within view tend to be safer
- Free-flowing arrangements, particularly nearside turning and merge lanes for vehicles, are particularly hazardous for cyclists.
- Advanced Stop Lines provide a waiting area for cyclists between two stop lines - one for drivers and one for cyclists, so that waiting cyclists are ahead of motor vehicles and can be seen easily.
Cycle crossings can improve safety for cyclists and are essential on main cycle routes.
Cycling on the footway is common, but often endangers pedestrians, particularly the elderly and people with a visual impairment. Converting the footway to shared use is a last resort and should only be applied in instances where visibility is good, adequate footway width exists and where no off-road or on-carriageway solution can be found.
To avoid conflict at bus stops, different coloured cycle lanes can be used at the stop; or rumble strips provided to guide cyclists away.
Conflict may also arise between motorcyclists/moped users and others, especially if they use facilities provided for pedal cyclists. If there is any possibility of any potential conflict between vehicles and cyclists (or pedestrians), a safety audit should be undertaken.
Cycle parking and other facilities
Cyclists require secure parking. Ideally this should be lockers or, for example, Sheffield stands. Cycle parking should be:
- in an easily accessible and convenient position;
- well signed and well lit;
- designed for easy parking and release of cycles;
- close to the entrance to the building;
- overlooked from the building windows to promote security; and
- covered (though not to obscure vision from the building).
Cycling to work
Providing showers and changing facilities can also encourage cycling, for example in work places. It is important to create a culture where cycling is encouraged. Financial incentives, such as cycle purchase loans and cycle mileage allowances, will help support physical measures in encouraging cycling.
12 Cycle-Friendly Infrastructure (IHT, 1996)
13 Cycling by Design (Scottish Executive, 1999) www.scotland.gov.uk/library2/cbd/cbd-00.asp
14 National Cycle Network – Guidelines and Practical Details: Issue 2 (Sustrans/Ove Arup, 1997)