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Draft PPS18: Renewable Energy
Annex 1 Small Hydro Technology: The Pipeline

E9. The pipeline (sometimes called the penstock) connects the intake with the turbine. This is typically a pipe of steel, plastic or composite material, the diameter of which could be between 10cm and 100cm, depending on the characteristics of the site, and the capacity of the scheme. High head schemes typically have smaller diameter pipes of longer length (sometimes over a kilometre), whereas low head schemes are typified by short, larger diameter pipes. Pipes are often buried for environmental or technical reasons. Anchor blocks to restrain the pipe are required at vertical and horizontal changes of direction, but these are usually buried if the pipe is buried.
E10. Open headrace channels are now rare on new schemes, but may occur if the project involves the rehabilitation of an existing scheme, particularly on old watermill sites.
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